Examples of hardware in a computer are the keyboard, the monitor, the mouse and the central processing unit. Mike works for a Software development company which develops computer games for children aged 8-14. Introduction to Computer Science using Java by Bradley Kjell is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License. Whatever these departments worked on became the de facto definition of Information Technology, one that has evolved over time. computer virus: A software program installed without the user’s knowledge and designed to alter the way a computer operates or to cause harm to the computer system. that identifies what kind of family of files the file belongs to, or which application should be used to read the file, a collection of related pieces of information stored together for easy reference, an index if all dector numbers that the hard drive stores in a table to keep track of which sectors hold which files, a program that takes out redundencies in a file to reduce the file size, the process by which humans or computer software provide organizational structure to a computer's contents, the first part of the label apploed to a file; generally the name a user assigns to the file while saving it, the exact location of a file, starting with the drive in which the file is located, and including all folders, subfolders, the file name, and the extension, system software that controls hardware devices, a collection of files stored on a computer, a mini-application that runs on the desktop, offering easy access to a frequently used tool such as weather or a calendar item, unlike the command- and menu-driven interfaces used in earlier software, GUIs display graphics and use the point-and-click technology of the mouse and cursor, making them much more user-friendly, a picture on a computer display that represents an object such as a software application or a file or folder, a signal that tells the operating system that it is in need of immediate attention, a special numerical code that prioritizes requests from various devices, the essential component of the operating system that is responsible for managing the processor and all other components of the computer system; because it stays in random access memory (RAM) the entire time the computer is powered on, the kernel is called memory resident, a Windows feature that starts the computer by using the registry information that was saved during the last shutdown, in Windows 7, a folder that is used to display files from different locations as if they were all saved in a single folder, regardless of where they are actually stored in the file hierarchy, an open source operating system based on UNIX; often used on web servers because of the stable nature of this operating system, the first commercially available operating system to incorporate a graphical user interface (GUI) with user-friendly point-and-click technology, a large, expensive computer that supports hundreds or thousands of users simultaneously and executes many different programs at the same time, a list of commands that displays on the screen, a user interface in which the user chooses a command from menus displayed on the screen, a single-user, single-task operating system created by Microsoft that was the first widely installed operating system in personal computers, the ability of an operating system to perform more than one process at a time, multiuser operating system (network operating system), an operating system that enables more than one user to access the computer system at one time by efficiently juggling all the requests from multiple users, the process of swapping data or instructions that have been placed in the swap file for later use back into active random access memory (RAM); the contents of the hard drive's swap file them become less active data or instrictions, the backslash (\) mark used by Microsoft Windows and DOS in file names, the combination of a computer's operating system and processor; the two most common platform types are the PC and the Apple Macintosh, the technology that enables the operating system to recognize automatically any new peripherals and configure them to work with the system, the first job the basic input/output system (BIOS) performs, ensuring the essential peripheral devices are attached and operational, when the operating system processes the task assigned a higher priority before processing a task that has been assigned a lower priority, a program with a specific purpose that must guarantee certain response times for particular computing tasks, or else the machine's application is useless, a folder on a Windows desktop in which deleted files from the hard drive are held until permanently purged from the system, a portion of the hard drive containing all the different configurations used by the Windows operating system (OS) as well as by other applications, a group of icons collected for easy access, the top level of the filing structure in a computer system, a special diagnostic mode designed for troubleshooting errors that occur during the boot process, on the desktop, the bar that appears at the side or bottom of the window and controls which part of the information is displayed on the screen, a section of hard drive platter, wedge-shaped from the center of the platter to the edge, a device that combines the functionality of a cellphone, and PMP, and a PDA into one unit, the instructions programmers write in a higher-level language, a program that helps coordinate all print jobs sent to the printer at the same time, a temporary storeage area on the hard drive where the operating system "swaps out" the data from the random access memory (RAM) that have not recently been used, any of the main files of an operating system, a utility in Windows that restores system settings to a specific previous date when everything was working properly, in Windows, a snapshot of your entire system's settings used for restoring your system to a prior point in time, in later versions of Windows OS, a feature that displays open and favorite applications for easy access, a Windows utility that shows programs currently running and permits you to exit non-responsive programs when you click End Task, a Windows utility that enables you to schedule tasks to run automatically at predetermined times with no interaction necessary on your part, a condition of excessive paging in which the operating system becomes sluggish, a concentric circle that serves as a storage area on a hard drive platter, an operating system originally conceived in 1969; in 1974, the UNIX code was rewritten in the standard programming language C, part of the operating system that enables individuals to interact with the computer, a small program that performs many of the general housekeeping tasks for the computer, such as system maintenance and file compression, the space on the hard drive where the operating system stores data if there isn't enough random access memory (RAM) to hold all of the programs you're currently trying to run, a mini-application developed for the Macintosh platform, in a graphical user interface, a rectangular box that contains programs displayed on the screen, an operating system by Microsoft that incorporates a user-friendly, graphical interface, Microsoft operating system that builds upon the security and user interface upgrades that the Windows Vista releave provided, and gives users with touch-screen monitors the ability to use touch commands to scroll, resize windows, pan, and zoom, the main tool for finding, viewing, and managing the contents of your computer by showing the location and contents of every drive, folder, and file, a wireless standard established in 1997 by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers; also known as WiFi, it enables wireless network devices to work seamlessly with other networks and devices, the accommodation of current devices being able to use previously issued software standards in addition to the current standards, a UTP cable type that provides more than 1 GB of thoughtput, a single copper wire surrounded by layers of plastic insulation and sheathing; used mainly in cable television and cable internet service, a network that uses the Ethernet protocol as the means by which the nodes on the network communicate, a cable that transmits data at close to the speed of light along glass or plastic fibers, a software program or hardware device designed to prevent unauthorized access to computers or networks, the most commonly used wired Ethernet standard deployed in devices designed for home networks which provides bandwidth of ip to 1 Gbps, anyone who unlawfully breaks into a computer system, a network located in a home that is used to connect all of its digital devices, a device designed to store media, share media across the network, and back up filed on computers connected to a home network, a physical address that is assigned to each network adapter; it is made up of six 2-digit characters such as 01:40:87:44:79:A5, a wide area network (WAN) that links users in a specific geographical area, such as within a city or country, a design in newer routers that provides for faster wireless data transmission by utilizing more than one antenna to transmit and receive data, a group of two or more computers that are configured to share information and resources such as printers, files, and databases, a device that enables the computer to communicate with the network using a common data communication language, or protocol, someone who has training in computer and peripheral maintenance and repair, network design, and the installation of network software, a specialized computing device designed to store and manage network data, the design of a computer network; includes both physical and logical design, a device on a network such as a router, hub, and switch that moves data signals around the network, software that handles requests for information, Internet access, and the use of peripherals for the rest of the network nodes, a device (such as a printer or external hard drive) that can be attached directly to a network instead of needing to attach to a computer on the network, a device connected to a network such as a computer, a peripheral (such as a printer), or a communications device (such as a modem), a small segment of data that is bundled for sending over transmission media; each packet contains the address of the computer or peripheral device to which it is being sent, a network in which each node connected to the network can communicate directly with every other node on the network, the process of connecting to a wireless network without the permission of the owner of the network, a device that routes packets of data between two or more networks, a network name that wireless routers use to identify themselves, a device for transmitting data on a network that has the capability to make decisions, based on the media access control (MAC) address of the data, as to where the data is to be sent, a device in a wireless network that translates the electronic data that needs to be sent along the network into radio waves and the broadcasts the waves to other network nodes, the radio waves or cable that transport data on a network, cables made of copper wires that are twisted around each other and are surrounded by a plastic sheath, the most popular transmission media option for Ethernet networks, composed of four pairs of wires that are twisted around each other to reduce electrical interference, a network made up of local area networks (LANs) connected over long distances, the 802.11 standard for wireless data transmissions, a device that amplifies your wireless signal to get it out to parts of your home that are experiencing poor connectivity. 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