There’s no reason for not committing well-written code right the first time. For instance, for God Class, inFusion has a recall of 9% and JSpIRIT of 17% in MobileMedia, while in Health Watcher the average recall for inFusion is 0% and for JSpIRIT is 10%. PMD does not detect Feature Envy. Dependency Structure Matrix, trend analysis, and smell … Softw Pract Exp 36(7):711–759. trial tools. Code smell detection tools can help developers to maintain software quality by employing different techniques for detecting code smells, such as object-oriented metrics (Lanza and Marinescu 2006) and program slicing (Tsantalis et al. Therefore, we can consider that the agreement remained high even when comparing tools with different detection techniques. Check out our code analysis series for more tips and tricks on automatic code inspection with ReSharper and Rider. Tables 5 and 6 show the average of recall and precision considering all versions for each tool and code smell analyzed in MobileMedia and Health Watcher. 2008). For God Class, PMD has the best accuracy, with an average recall of 100% and the highest average precision of 36%. Section 2.2 presents the tools evaluated in this paper. Furthermore, these systems have been used and evaluated in previous research work (Figueiredo et al. Addison-Wesley, Boston, Greenwood P, Bartolomei TT, Figueiredo E, Dosea M, Garcia AF, Cacho N, Sant’Anna C, Soares S, Borba P, Kulesza U, Rashid A (2007) On the impact of aspectual decompositions on design stability: An empirical study. J Sys Softw 86(10):2639–2653. (2015) also analyzed multiple versions of systems to investigate the evolution of code smells. Included is the 'precommit' module that is used to execute full and partial/patch CI builds that provides static analysis of code via other open source tools as part of a configurable report. In general, tools are evaluated individually and considering only a few smells. MATH  Therefore, in Health Watcher almost all smells were introduced at the creation of the class or method. The column Tool contains the names of the analyzed tools as reported in the tools corresponding websites. Overall, our results showed that most of the identified code smells in MobileMedia and Health Watcher were already present at the creation of the affected class or method. Here’s a higher-level list of code smells to watch for, in order of priority. Even though we included only one system, we found differences in the accuracy and agreement of tools when comparing the results of MobileMedia with those of Health Watcher. In MobileMedia the pairs inFusion-JDeodorant (75.12%), JDeodorant-JSpIRIT (74.36%), and JDeodorant-PMD (74.36%) have lower average overall agreements, while in Health Watcher, all pairs have an average agreement higher than 87.82%. However, the overall agreement considering all versions can still be considered high, ranging from 91.94 to 97.07% for MobileMedia and 87.39 to 92.48% for Health Watcher. What are the smells that you commonly see in Java code that are missing in this list? Other times, quality conscious software developers attempt to refactor some of the detected smells. It reveals that Large Class and Large Method are most prevalent. See what professional developers are saying about n depend. Section 3.2 summarizes the reference lists of code smells identified in both systems. The higher standard deviation indicates a greater variation in the agreement between the other tools and JDeodorant from one version to another, when compared with the other pairs of tools. For God Method, PMD and inFusion have the same accuracy, with an average recall of 26% and an average precision of 100%. This paper evaluates and compares four code smell detection tools, namely inFusion, JDeodorant, PMD, and JSpIRIT. It can indicate that the method is badly located and should be transferred to another class (Fowler 1999). Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. In Figs. Addison-Wesley, Boston, Gamma E, Vlissides J, Johnson R, Helm R (1994) Design patterns: elements of reusable object-oriented software. This involves the correct analysis of the results of the experiment, measurement reliability and reliability of the implementation of the treatments. Google Scholar, Fowler M (1999) Refactoring: improving the design of existing code. Lastly, inFusion reports only 9 instances of Feature Envy. According to Fig. The complete calculation and explanation of e(γ) can be found in the book of Gwet (2001). JDeodorant detects God Class by searching for refactoring opportunities (Fontana et al. As infrastructure as code (IaC) scripts are used to provision cloud-based servers and systems at scale, security smells in IaC scripts could be used to enable malicious users to exploit vulnerabilities in the provisioned systems. The column Languages contains the programming languages of the source code that can be analyzed by the tools, with Java being the common language among them. They manipulate images and directly access data and methods from other classes that also manipulate images. IEEE, pp 35–40, Wohlin C, Runeson P, Höst M, Ohlsson MC, Regnell B, Wesslén A (2012) Experimentation in software engineering. inFusion is a commercial standalone tool for Java, C, and C++ that detects 22 code smells, including the three smells of our interest: God Class, God Method, and Feature Envy. If a tool provides the detection of the code smells, it must provides also the possibility to customize it. JSpIRIT and JDeodorant also detect more instances in Health Watcher than the other tools. The usage of different techniques explains the lower agreement between the other tools with JDeodorant. Bad code smells can be an indicator of factors that contribute to Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The latter is smelly only in versions 9 and 10, although the class was created in the first version. Although the techniques are distinct, the high average agreement seems to indicate that both techniques are similarly effective in the identification of God Method. 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