10. It is known as protandry. Both the earthworms receive sperms and prostatic secretion in all of their spermathecae by a protuberance that arises from the male genital opening. The spermatogonia are casted into the testis sacs then, they are passed into the seminal vesicles. They are flask-shaped and have a short diverticulum. Median response time is 34 minutes and may be longer for new subjects. Each spermiduct funnel is internally … Reproductive System Like all organisms, earthworms need to reproduce to continue their species. These young individuals have no clitellum. This process of copulation lasts for about an hour. The sac is white, with wide walls and is filled with fluid. That is, they each have a set of female and male organs. Reproduction in Earthworm. The earthworm is a hermaphrodite and reproduction is strictly sexual. 6). The funnel ends in a short and conical tube-like structure called an oviduct. There are two in every segment. An adult earthworm develops a belt-shaped glandular swelling, called the clitellum, which covers several segments toward the front part of the animal. These are large, whitish spherical structures. Did you Know Your Average Earthworm is Nearly as big as Your Teacup? Vedantu academic counsellor will be calling you shortly for your Online Counselling session. These are then stored within the respective spermatheca. The sac is bi-lobed, and the first sac at the 10th segment is larger than the second once since it houses the earthworm’s seminal vesicles as well. The posterior seminal vesicles are larger than the anterior ones. Ovaries: There is a single pair of ovaries attached to the 12th and 13th septa. Copulation has been studied in … The most important organs are listed below. The worm’s excretory organs are tiny nephridia. The cocoons are oval in structure, light yellow in colour and are about 2 to 2.4 mm in length and 1.5 to 2 mm in breadth. The aortic arches function like a human heart. Earthworms are simultaneous hermaphrodites, meaning worms have both male and female reproductive organs. It is known as protandry. Before maturation, they rest in an ovary’s dorsal end. They are thin-walled and fluid-filled sacs. 10. These invertebrates can dig down up to 6.5 feet. Each spermathecum is made of ampulla and neck (upper short tubular part). Hence the earthworms are known as hermaphrodites. That is, they each have a set of female and male organs. November 7, 2020 Gaurab Karki Zoology 0. Finally, the girdle is removed off from the anterior end of the worm. Earthworm are monoecious or hermaphrodite or bisexual and protandrous. These ciliated funnels play an essential role in passing on spermatozoa to the Vasa deferentia and onwards. Compare the reproductive system of an earthworm with that of Ascaris. Each spermiduct funnel is internally ciliated. Spermathecal duct opens outside by small pores situated in the grooves of 5/6, 6/7, 7/8, and 8/9 segments. These are mature sperms; producing them is the main function of testes in earthworms. As the girdle moves over the female genital pore, it receives eggs, and when it passes over the spermathecae, sperms are emitted into it through spermathecal pores. These vessels are the aortic arches, dorsal blood vessels, and ventral blood vessels. Reproductive organs of Pheretima. Cut open the skin and expose organs from about 30th segment to the anterior end of the worm. Pro Lite, Vedantu Earthworm, any one of more than 1,800 species of terrestrial worms of the class Oligochaeta (phylum Annelida)—in particular, members of the genus Lumbricus. Earthworms have no larval stage; a young worm emerges from these cocoons, fully formed. The earthworm, Lumbricus terrestris, is an example of a specialized annelid reproductive system. A mature worm exits a cocoon after some time. That is why there is a ‘bulge’ on an earthworm. They are also termed as septal pouches, as they develop as septal outgrowths. It is known as protandry. Earthworm’s male reproductive system consists of two pairs of the testis, two pairs of spermiducal funnel, two pairs of seminal vesicles, two pairs of vasdefence, one pair of prostatic gland and one pair of the common prosthetic prostatic spermatic duct and one pair of male genital aperture. Pro Lite, Vedantu The spermatogonia mature in these vesicles and develop into spermatozoa. Several cocoons formation occurs after each copulation as the spermatozoa present in the spermatheca do not move out all at one time. 1. Reproductive System : Both male and female reproductive organs are present in the same worm. Seminal vesicles in earthworm are also called septal pouches. The clitellum produces a mucus which holds the two worms together for sperm exchange. Male reproductive System of Earthworm. Earthworm - Reproductive System Earthworms are hermaphroditic, but cannot simply impregnate itself. Spermathecae/ seminal receptacles are designed for receiving sperms from another worm during copulation and temporary storage of sperms. Copulation is completed once spermatozoa from one worm is transferred to another. An earthworm circulates blood exclusively through vessels. The sac is bi-lobed, and the first sac at the 10. segment is larger than the second once since it houses the earthworm’s seminal vesicles as well. There are two in every segment. That is why there is a ‘bulge’ on an earthworm. A pair of white, small, lobulated ovaries. There are three main vessels that supply the blood to organs within the earthworm. The most important organs of the female reproductive system of earthworm are the following -. The funnel ends in a short and conical tube-like structure called an oviduct. Female Reproductive Organs of Earthworm: Female reproductive organs consist of the ovaries, oviducts and spermathecae. Then they are discharged through the male genital apertures along with the prostate glands’ secretion. Lies on the 13 th segment attached to the posterior … These spermatozoa again enter the testis sacs and reach the vasa deferentia via the spermatic funnels. During sexual intercourse among earthworms, both sets of sex organs are used by both worms. Each spermatheca is flask shaped structure. Central nervous system of earthworm: It includes a nerve ring and a nerve cord. This is the area where sperm is stored. On the two pairs of genital papillae positioned externally on either side of the mid-ventral line, these glands open in the 17. Ovaries. At the junction of the ampulla and neck, a small sac is found termed as diverticulum. There is a single pair of ovaries attached to the 12. septa. However, self-fertilization doesn’t occur because of relative location of male and female reproductive organs as well as it is protandrous. The clitellum produces a mucus which holds the two worms together for sperm exchange. A task for you: Identify the various segments of these worms in your school’s laboratory. Ovaries are white, small, lobulated structures that are found in a pair. Lies on the 13 th segment attached to the posterior face of septum 12/13in front of it, one on either side of the ventral nerve cord. https://pediaa.com/what-is-the-difference-between-ascaris-and-earthworm A cocoon of earthworm contains many fertilized eggs. Since the sperms develop earlier than production of ova, self-fertilization is avoided. Earthworms reproduce sexually by lining up and exchanging sperm. They are protandrous, there is no self-fertilization. There are two pairs of testes and they are lobed. Spermatheca: Each earthworm has 4 pairs of spermatheca. A saucer-shaped structure, an oviducal funnel is located in the 13, segment. Reproductive System of Earthworm Anatomy of Earthworm,Cockroach & Frog of Class 11. Each testis consists of 4-8 fingers like projections and are situated inside testis sac. Earthworms are monoecious or hermaphrodites. The male reproductive system comprises testes, testis sacs, seminal … These are located at the 10. segments. The funnel plays an important role in collecting matured ova after an ovary of earthworm produces them. ... Earthworm- Reproductive System, Copulation, Cocoon formation. The worm begins to withdraw itself backwards from the girdle. Once the ova mature, it gradually moves towards the coelomic cavity. Copulation has been seen in several species of earthworms. You can also access all of our course materials from Vedantu’s app as well. Ovaries. The common earthworm, Lumbricus terrestris, is a cylindrical, segmented and tubular worm which plays an important part in maintaining the ecosystem. It would help if you remembered that earthworm reproduction is not always parthenogenetic, which is a form of asexual reproduction. Earthworm - Reproductive System. Clitellum is secreted by specialized gland cells present in clitellar region. During reproduction, two worms come together in opposite directions with their clitellums in contact with segments 9-11 of their mating partner. However, for common usage, worm is a name generally given to elongated, soft and limbless animals such as flatworms and roundworms. Male genital pores are found in pairs and is located in 18. Ans. These produce spermatogonia. Each testis consists of 4-8 fingers like projections and are situated inside testis sac. Each ovary consists of various finger like projections where developing ova are found in a row, giving the beaded appearance. Ans. The alimentary canal is a straight tube running throughout the length of the body from the mouth to the anus. Seminal vesicles aids for nourishment to the sperm. Let us proceed and find out more about how earthworms reproduce. A pair of white, small, lobulated ovaries. 11. The plasma and corpuscles make up the blood and it has multiple hearts. An earthworm can lay anywhere from 4 to 20 eggs at one go. The reproductive system of earthworm is not very complicated given that all species are hermaphrodites. Since the sperms develop earlier than production of ova, self-fertilization is avoided. Development is direct without any larval stage. These are found in pair and are located one on either side of the alimentary canal in the segments from 16. The sperms from spermatic funnel are collected by the vasa deferentia and are supplied to prostate glands. Testis sacs are whitish, wide bilobed sacs that encloses testis. The common earthworm, Lumbricus terrestris, is a cylindrical, segmented and tubular worm which plays an important part in maintaining the ecosystem. Earthworms are hermaphroditic, but cannot simply impregnate itself. Be sure to note both similarities and differences. Each spermiduct funnel is internally ciliated and helps in conduction of spermatozoa. Both the pair of vasa deferentia runs in close proximity and laterally to the nerve cord below the alimentary canal on the ventral body wall. They are mucous glands that secrete mucus for copulation, cocoon-secreting glands that produces the wall of the cocoon and albumen glands that secrete albumen in which eggs are deposited in the cocoon. The female reproductive organs consist of ovaries, oviducts, and spermathecae. While all earthworms are simultaneous hermaphrodites, there is copulation and fertilisation involved. The ganglia above the pharynx serve as the brain of the earthworm. During reproduction, two worms come together in opposite directions with their clitellums in contact with segments 9-11 of their mating partner. During copulation, two earthworms lie opposite to each other in such a way that their ventral surfaces remain in touch and male genital openings of one lies just opposite to the spermathecal openings of the other worm and vice versa. Earthworm : Reproductive System. During the young stage of the earthworm, the testes are fully developed whereas they get degenerated in the adult stage. To answer that, we need first to identify the reproductive organs of an earthworm. Dissection of Reproductive System: The earthworm is hermaphrodite, (Fig.2.5) i.e., both male and female reproductive organs are present in the same individual. The ova after maturation are released from the ovaries and are received by the ovarian funnel. Some earthworms have naturally well-developed clitellums. Now that you have an idea of the physical parts of the reproductive system of earthworm, we come to copulation. The testis sacs open into seminal vesicles by a narrow duct. Each ovarian funnel opens into a short and conical oviduct. It is attached with the posterior region of the inter-segmental septum of 12/13 segments. Earthworms are simultaneous hermaphrodites, meaning worms have both male and female reproductive organs.During sexual intercourse among earthworms, both sets of sex organs are used by both worms. 37 and 46, respectively, there). Let us first analyse the male reproductive system. 1. Seminal Vesicles: An earthworm has two pairs of seminal vesicles. Clitellums are also found in leeches. But it always shows cross-fertilization due to protandrous condition wherein the testes mature earlier than ovaries and self-fertilization is prevented. 1. The clitellum secretes mucus that picks up the egg and sperm cell forming a cocoon. These are located ventro-laterally below the stomach. An earthworm has two pairs of seminal vesicles. Some species of earthworm can even use the prehensile prostomium to grab and drag items such as grasses and leaves into their burrow. Clitellum is the most important feature of reproduction in earthworm. Reproductive System . Digestive System of Earthworm: The digestive system of earthworm consists of the alimentary canal and the digestive glands. Posteriorly, each spermiducal funnel leads to vasa deferens. The spermatogonia mature in these vesicles and develop into spermatozoa. After the completion of spermatogenesis, tailed spermatozoa are formed. Its mid-dorsal part comprises of a pair of small and fused supra-pharyngeal ganglia, also called cerebral ganglia or … The term “worm” has been applied to thousands of diverse, unrelated invertebrate animals, including snakelike lizards called blindworms. NOTE: The ovaries and testes are there but too small to see. Some earthworms have naturally well-developed clitellums. Known for their iteroparous nature, earthworms also never stop growing. They are cup like curvature in structure and are present in two pairs. Sorry!, This page is not available for now to bookmark. Male Reproductive System. However, self-fertilization doesn’t occur because of relative location of male and female reproductive organs as well as it is protandrous. They lie ventro-laterally below the alimentary canal, close to mid-ventral line on either side of ventral nerve cord. The cocoon is dropped into the soil where a new earthworm develops. Female Reproductive System. They are enclose within the testis sac. These are located at the 10th and 11th segments. In earthworm the prostatic secretion is useful for the activation of sperms. REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM OF EARTHWORM. Earthworm are monoecious or hermaphrodite or bisexual. Then, it passes through the oviduct and that is discharged out via the female genital pore. Earthworm are monoecious or hermaphrodite or bisexual. The circulatory system of earthworm is closed type that is made up of blood vessels and capillaries that are fork out all over the body. A small, ciliated ovarian funnel with folded margins are present below each ovary in 13. Use the preceding diagram to locate some nephridia. Ova and multiple ovarian lobules rest within an earthworm ovary. Two pairs of testes are located at the 10, segments. The earthworm has a closed circulatory system. On the ventrolateral sides of the ventral nerve cord, the two testis sacs are located in the 10. Like all organisms, earthworms need to reproduce to continue their species. For a detailed insight on various chapters of Biology, take a look at our rest of the notes today. Reproductive System. Does an Earthworm Cocoon Produce a Larva? Reproductive system of Earthworm. Reproductive System of Earthworm Anatomy of Earthworm,Cockroach & Frog of Class 11. Dissection of Reproductive System: The earthworm is hermaphrodite, (Fig.2.5) i.e., both male and female reproductive organs are present in the same individual. The crop-gizzard is also partially obscured by the cream-coloured seminal vesicles of the reproductive system. These are mature sperms; producing them is the main function of testes in earthworms. Earthworms are monoecious or hermaphrodites. Some species have been known to grow to as much as 14 inches long. Cocoon is found in moist and cool places and young one hatch out after 2-2.5 months. Try and locate the 12th and 13th septa. Fig. An adult earthworm develops a belt-shaped glandular swelling, called the clitellum, which covers several segments toward the front part of the animal. It is located below each testis in the segment 10. The oviducts of both the sides unite below the nerve cord. Hence the earthworms are known as hermaphrodites. Function:They produce sperm. At the junction of the ampulla and neck, a small sac is found. Summary points on Reproductive system of earthworm: Earthworm are monoecious or hermaphrodite or bisexual and protandrous. Hence the earthworms are known as hermaphrodites. If all goes well, the eggs of both of the mates become fertilized. It is thin, long, narrow, thread like tubular structure. Here, the spermatogonia matures and form spermatozoa. A Little About Earthworms Hermaphrodites: have both male and femalereproductive organs Protandrous: the male sex cells mature much earlierthan the female sex cells Cannot partake in parthenogenesis, or self-fertilization Require a mate of the same species to reproduce Possess a clitellum, or body wall, as adults Albumen cells provide nutrition to the embryo. However, only one develops into embryo, while other fertilized eggs serve nutritive/ nurse cells. Use the preceding diagram to locate some nephridia. It is single pore and is located in the 14. Two of these oviducts meet at the 14. segment and then open out into the external genital pore. i) Nerve ring of earthworm : Nerve ring is an oblique ring around the pharynx in 3 rd and 4 th segments. During mating seasons, two worms will attach ventrally to each other, allowing prostatic fluid and sperm exchange via an earthworm’s spermathecal pore. It comprises of male reproductive organs and female reproductive organs. Three varieties of glands are present in the epidermis of clitellar segments, i.e., 14. Seventeen native species and 13 introduced species (from Europe) occur in the eastern United States, L. terrestris being the most common. The sac is white, with wide walls and is filled with fluid. The testis sacs links with a pair of seminal vesicles. Maximum portion of prostate glands are glandular region while a small part is non-glandular region. Female reproductive organs consist of the ovaries, oviducal funnel, oviducts and spermathecae. Both male and female reproductive organs are present in the same worm. Copulation has been studied in … Reproductive System of Earthworm: Earthworm is a hermaphrodite or bisexual or monoecious form. Testis sac Testes ar… How does the digestive system of an earthworm and an Ascaris differ? Experts state that seminal vesicles of earthworms evolved nearly 1 million years ago and precedes parthenogenesis. Earthworms are nocturnal creatures. Yes, they do. (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); Copyright © 2020 | WordPress Theme by MH Themes. EarthwormReproduction 2. Pro Lite, CBSE Previous Year Question Paper for Class 10, CBSE Previous Year Question Paper for Class 12. During copulation, two earthworms lie opposite to each other in such a way that their ventral surfaces remain in touch and male genital openings of one comes just opposite to the spermathecal openings of the other and vice versa. These are found in two pairs, each pair is located in 11. Ova and multiple ovarian lobules rest within an earthworm ovary. It is found enclosed within the same testis sac. The 4 pairs are located laterally at the 5th to 9th segments. The prostatic duct is connected to the two vasa deferntia of its own side and forms a common prostatic and spermatic duct. Protandrous refers the condition where male reproductive organs mature earlier than the female ones. Spermathecae are also termed as seminal receptacles as they are designed for receiving sperms from another worm during copulation and temporary storage of sperms. Before maturation, they rest in an ovary’s dorsal end. The secretion of these glands is thought to hold the two worms together during the copulation process. The clitellar region contains mucous cells, albumin cells and cocoon secreting cells. Mucous cells secrete mucous that forms the outer case of the cocoon. Hence, each genital aperture has three distinct apertures, two of the vasa deferentia and one of the prostatic gland. Since the sperms develop earlier than production of ova, self-fertilization is avoided. Cut open the skin and expose organs from about 30th segment to the anterior end of the worm. The spermatogonia from testis sac are received by seminal vesicles. 1. Copulation generally occurs during night-time in the months of July to October, i.e. Earthworms are hermaphrodites meaning they have both male and female sex organs. They are flask-shaped and have a short diverticulum. After the maturation, sperms from seminal vesicles revert to testes sac and pass into vasa differentia via spermiducal funnel. These are found in two pairs and each pair is located on the either side of the alimentary canal. As advanced students of biology, you must study further on sexual and sexual types of reproduction. Here, it open by a single median female genital pore ventrally in the 14. These glands are exposed to outside by a collection of small ductless glands. Each ovary is whitish in colour and consists of ovarian tubules. Earthworm’s male reproductive system consists of two pairs of the testis, two pairs of spermiducal funnel, two pairs of seminal vesicles, two pairs of vasdefence, one pair of prostatic gland and one pair of the common prosthetic prostatic spermatic duct and one pair of male genital aperture. Clitellums are also found in leeches. Earthworms’ bodies are made up of ring-like segments called annuli. Two of these oviducts meet at the 14th segment and then open out into the external genital pore. Earthworms have both male and female reproductive organs, but does not fertilize itself. At Vedantu, we have a team of well-versed experts to form the study materials. Earthworm Reproduction 1. The funnel plays an important role in collecting matured ova after an ovary of earthworm produces them. Reproductive organs of Pheretima. The reproductive system of earthworm is not very complicated given that all species are hermaphrodites. It has both male and female reproductive organs in the same individual. Reproductive System of Earthworm: Both male and female reproductive organs are present in the same worm. Sperm are stored in a seminal vesicle and eggs in an egg sac, rather than in the coelom. Try and locate the 12. septa. In the testis sac, a large spermatic funnel having folded and ciliated margins is present behind each of the four testes. This is the area where sperm is stored. Vedantu Since the sperms develop earlier than production of ova, self-fertilization is avoided. The worm’s excretory organs are tiny nephridia. An excel lent description of the earthw orm reproductive system can be found in. Hence the earthworms are known as hermaphrodites. They are protandrous, there is no self-fertilization. Self fertilization is avoided because two sex organs mature at different times, which means the sperm develops earlier than the production of ova (Protandrous). Testes are very minute structures that are whitish in colour. Testes There are two pairs of small, white and lobed testes, located in 10th and 11th segment. monsoon. Compare the reproductive system of the earthworm with that of Ascaris. These ciliated funnels play an essential role in passing on spermatozoa to the Vasa deferentia and onwards. Blood vessels are of 2 types- collecting blood vessels and distributing blood vessels. Each earthworm has 4 pairs of spermatheca. In a short time, the elasticity of its wall closes up its two ends forming a cocoon or ootheca. Earthworm - Reproductive System . Reproductive System. Each testis consists of 4-8 finger like projections/ processes, containing round cells called spermatogonia. *Response times vary by subject and question complexity. #earthworm #reproductivesystem #reproductivesystemofearthworm In his large monograph, “Histoire Anatomique et Physiologique des scorpions,” Dufour discusses the reproductive system (see p 634–650 there), and provides illustrations of the ovariuteri of both a buthid and a scorpionid (Plate 4, Figs. Fertilization only occurs in the cocoon or ootheca and is always external. But in other species of earthworm, sperms are store in ampulla. Earthworm Earthworms are found in North America and Western Asia. Accessory glands are rounded structures and are found in two pairs. No, an earthworm’s lifecycle does not have a larval stage. Cocoon-secreting glands of the clitellum secretes a membranous girdle. Earthworms are usually seven to eight centimeters long. Unlike most organ systems, the sexes of differentiated species often have significant differences. Reproductive system of Earthworm. These produce spermatogonia. Reproductive System. Reproductive System of Earthworm In the case of earthworm, sexual reproduction takes place.They are monoecious and hermaphrodite.They are protandrous and cross-fertilization and external fertilization takes place. Copulation takes place between two earthworms generally at night during rainy season. It is assumed that, the secretion of accessory glands helps to keep the two earthworms together during copulation. The ganglia above the pharynx serve as the brain of the earthworm. ; Made of the finger-like process with developing ova in arrow providing it beaded appearance. Spermathecae are four pairs and each pair is located ventro-laterally in the 6. The circulatory system of earthworm or blood vascular system is a closed type. Reproductive System. If all goes well, the eggs of both of the mates become fertilized. Seminal Funnel: Earthworms have two pairs of seminal funnels. Albumen cells provides nutrition to the embryo. Q: What do you mean by sensory nerves? Spermathecae are flask shaped structure and are found one pair in each 6. One of the most interesting aspects of earthworms is their sexuality. Reproductive System of Earthworm: Both male and female reproductive organs are present in the same worm. It commonly take place in the rainy season during the months of July to October, in the morning hours before sunrise. Thus, cross fertilization occurs in earthworm. Structure of the Earthworm’s Digestive System The digestive system of the earthworm comprises alimentary canal and glands along with physiology of digestion. Earthworms have two pairs of seminal funnels. Oviducal Funnel: A saucer-shaped structure, an oviducal funnel is located in the 13th segment. 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