The findings of the study were categorized into four main themes including; knowledge of human trafficking, causes of human trafficking, roles of The first-person approach incorporates concrete narrative descriptions of momentous events with theoretical discussion and/or literary flourish thus, catapulting personal reflection to a detailed and deep analysis that embellishes experiences [2]. 6 Considering the efficacy of Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) as a means to reveal teachers‟ implicit theories of learning. Like Husserl, researchers primarily seek to capture the participants’ experiences of a phenomenon by bracketing their fore-knowledge [1]. Bias This is a methodology discussion that compares and contrasts IPA with other phenomenological approaches. Its emphasis on convergence and divergence of experiences, as well as its mission in examining detailed and nuanced analysis of the lived experience of small number participants [1], is particularly appealing to many researchers. It is a relatively recent approach introduced by Smith in 1996 as he believed that … 2006 Jul;55(2):215-29. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2648.2006.03898.x. Subjectivity Establishing the reliability and validity of the approaches can be challenging, which makes subjective research difficult. Couple interview is one of the qualitative data collection methods that can be utilized in health psychology research designs, such as interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) design. Heidegger argued that the primary concern for existential phenomenologists is to investigate and interpret existence as it is humanly experienced [13]. tative phenomenological analysi s (IPA) in their research. Moreover, qualitative research can be used to explore less known or less understood topics or phenomenon to help bring to the forefront unexpected knowledge. Interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) is an experiential qualitative approach to research in psychology and the human, health and social sciences. Therefore, the researcher intuitively seeks to probe the surface meanings by reading in between the lines for deeper interpretation [2]. Objective: This paper is aimed at providing an overview and limitations of IPA. But in their rebuttal of this criticism, they accept that meaning making takes place in the context of narratives, discourse, metaphors etc., and whilst the primary purposes of IPA are to gain insight into experience, it is always intertwined with language [1]. 2018 Jun 1;5(3):442-449. doi: 10.1002/nop2.152. Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) is an increasingly popular approach to qualitative inquiry and essentially an attempt to understand how participants experience and make meaning of their world. Thematic analysis has been poorly branded, yet widely used in qualitative research (Braun & Clarke, 2006), and has been rarely appreciated in the same way as grounded theory, ethnography, or phenomenology.Braun and Clarke (2006) argued that thematic analysis should be a foundational method for qualitative analysis, as it provides core skills for conducting many other forms of qualitative analysis. Context: Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) has become a dominant qualitative research methodology in many academic disciplines. Objective: This paper is aimed at providing an overview and limitations of IPA. At the core of his philosophy is a protracted argument about the pivotal role perception plays in understanding and engaging the world [2]. J Adv Nurs. 2017 Jan;73(1):265-278. doi: 10.1111/jan.13093. Interpretive phenomenological analysis (IPA) may be used by the researcher whose research question requires “Participants interpretation of the topic under investigation” (cited in Smith et al, Chapter 15 ` Doing Interpretive phenomenological analysis). Meaning in this context is deemed as something fluid that is continuously open to new insight, revision, interpretation, and reinterpretation [1,10]. IPA has emerged by identifying more strongly with hermeneutic traditions and utilizing the works of Heideger, Merleau-Ponty, and Sartre to explore and interpret personal lived experience of the participants. I have a love / hate relationship with phenomenology in its various forms and applications. First, each of the six researchers read all of the responses individually to begin to understand the data. Heated debates have ensued about the appropriate ways to undertake phenomenological research. Phenomenology has attracted growing interest in everyday experience in the domain of public and professional practice including nursing, education, psychology, and social work [10]. Ricoeur linked phenomenology and hermeneutics by explaining that experience and meaning are closely intertwined. This is described as an idiographic mode of inquiry as That said, he acknowledges that certain human complexities require the individual’s life, his biographical history, and the social situation to be taken into consideration. His work also prompts IPA researchers to be reflexive in their interpretation in relation to their fore-understanding of the phenomenon being investigated [1]. Interpretative phenomenological analysis: a discussion and critique Epub 2016 Sep 16. Context: Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) has become a dominant qualitative research methodology in many academic disciplines. The e-book also explains all stages of the research process starting from the selection of the research area to writing personal reflection. Try to find out as hoped. Smith argues that his idiographic and inductive method, which seeks to explore participants’ personal lived experiences, is The paper concludes by bringing together some thoughts for future researchers who might use IPA as their preferred research methodology. However, a modern way of conducting a phenomenological research is IPA. This study has argued that qualitative research in general and IPA specifically offers flexible and versatile approach to understanding people’s experiences. However, two broad categories can be identified: descriptive and hermeneutic. IPA is a qualitative research approach. Interpretative phenomenological analysis offers an adaptable and accessible approach to phenomenological research intended to give a complete and in-depth account that privileges the individual. For example, Heidegger’s and Sartre’s phenomenology are focused on existentialism, and Merleu Ponty’s centres on embodiment [1]. Analysis. Sartre’s work offers IPA researchers the most comprehensive glimpse of what a phenomenological analysis of human experience should look like in the context of personal, social relationships, and moral encounters [1]. In Sartre’s view, human nature is more about becoming than being therefore; there is freedom of choice as well as responsibilities for our own actions. Interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) ... obtained and the possible advantages and disadvantages of mixi ng met hods. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview and limitations of IPA which has risen in popularity in many academic disciplines due to its useful methodology in studying existential experience [2]. He also argued that empiricism has failed to adequately conceptualize the mechanisms of perception and judgement, and that it is essential to acknowledge human existence in shaping the elementary principles of knowing the world. 2. J Adv Nurs. Husserl’s thesis on phenomenology has been criticized by many for being too philosophical, conceptual and difficult to decipher [1]. The approach has its roots in psychology and recognises the central role of the analyst in understanding the experiences of participants. 2014 Sep;22(1):20-5. doi: 10.7748/nr.22.1.20.e1277. 2019 Jul;10(3):425-434. doi: 10.1007/s12687-019-00406-x. Primary data generated in interpretivist studies cannot be generalized since data is heavily impacted by personal viewpoint and values. Husserl believed that this could be achieved by consciously setting aside our previous knowledge and to detach ourselves from prejudices, prior understandings and our own history [2]. Husserl drew a sharp distinction between what is experienced noema and the way it is experienced noesis. IPA allows the researcher to gain a phenomenological account of participant’s experiences. Language is not only used for descriptive purposes, but as an expressive force of experience. [1] rebuff this by arguing that the IPA’s prerequisite of sense-making and meaning-making which encompass formal reflection clearly resonates with cognitive psychology. To identify core structures and features of human experience, Husserl encouraged the questioning of natural attitude through phenomenological reflection and dissuaded things being taken for granted. HHS Aim: The aim of this article is to examine the approach of interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) and to add to discussions regarding the contribution that the approach can make to healthcare research. There are multiple and diverse epistemological roots for qualitative approaches, but they converge in the context of how meaning making takes place [6,7]. The key philosophers of this approach are Husserl, Heidegger, Sarte, Merleu-Ponty, Schutz, van den Berg, and two contemporary philosophers: Dahlberg and Ashworth [2]. The desire to know more about this qualitative research methodology has intensified. Conclusion: IPA is a forward-looking research approach that adopts a flexible and versatile design to understand people’s experiences. The dynamism of interpretation and reflection resounds excellently with the hermeneutic circle model that deals with the dynamic relationship between the ‘part’ and the ‘whole’ at numerous levels for a holistic analytical interpretation. The desire to understand the theoretical underpinnings of this research approach is evident. If the phenomenological on dissertation interpretative analysis velocity of the photographs. Qualitative research includes ethnography, phenomenology, grounded theory and historical research. The research questions determine the data-collecting strategies. Thus, Merleau-Ponty suggested that humans are unique and different from everything else in the world, and therefore use their holistic sense to engage with the world. Early approaches to different conditions are individually neces sary conditions for the compound object. Qualitative research explores and understands the meanings people assign to their experiences [4,5]. Furthermore, as a qualitative research approach, IPA gives researchers the best opportunity to understand IPA seeks to understand the lived experience by integrating the works of four major phenomenological philosophers: Husserl, Heidegger, Merleau-Ponty, and Sartre to illuminate phenomenology as a singular and pluralist endeavour existing in a continuum. Researchers attempt to study things in their natural settings and attempt to make sense of, or interpret the meanings people assign to their experiences in everyday language [5]. Therefore, the IPA researcher embarks on studying Dasein by immersing himself/herself in the world of the participants through a lens of cultural and socio-historical meanings [14]. Clipboard, Search History, and several other advanced features are temporarily unavailable. The paper begins with a brief overview and rationale for qualitative research approach. Put simply, the researcher is required to adopt a phenomenological attitude and bracket or put aside past knowledge or presuppositions [2]. Then the issues and advantages of thematic analysis are discussed. Whilst phenomenology as philosophy is associated with introspection allowing the philosopher to explore his or her experiences through ‘phenomenological meditation’, phenomenology as a research approach relies on the accounts of participants and the experiences of researchers. BMC Palliat Care. Ibid. This paper will explore the scope of IPA by presenting the methodological framework and a step-by-step description on how to con-duct an IPA study. Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis 55 Smith-2e-3625-Ch-04.qxd 9/26/2007 8:05 PM Page 55. not to say that IPA is opposed to more general claims for larger populations; it is just that it is committed to the painstaking analysis of cases rather than jump-ing to generalizations. of both focus groups and analysis of … It will also discuss the advantages and challenges of utilizing IPA during the doctoral years. Therefore, the emphasis is upon seeking to explore the patterns of unanticipated and expected relationships in cases or phenomena [8,9]. As already noted, Merleau-Ponty focused much of his work on subjectivity, embodiment and our relationship to the world [1]. The next major theoretical underpinning of IPA is hermeneutics, which is the art and science of interpretation or meaning. Furthermore, the approach is suitable when a detailed in-depth view of a phenomenon is needed to explore a complex process and to illuminate the multifaceted nature of human experience [4]. Background: They are inductive and share similarities in exploring ‘what’ ‘why’ and ‘how’ questions, as opposed to ‘how much’ and ‘how many’ preferred by quantitative studies. Context: Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) has become a dominant qualitative research methodology in many academic disciplines. IPA is also said to be fundamentally idiographic, in that it is committed to the detailed analysis of a phenomenon under investigation [16]. Researchers achieve this by exercising their subjective judgement whilst making it visible how their preconceptions shape the knowledge produced through personal reflexivity in a form of self-analysis and self-evaluation during the research [7,8]. The lessons IPA researchers can take from Merleau-Ponty’s work is how he portrays the vital role the body plays in knowing about the world. Thus, making sense of the respondents’ narratives requires the IPA researcher to engage in close interpretation, but the researcher may not necessarily be conscious of his/her preconceptions beforehand. In reflexive-relational approaches, data and/or meanings are seen to emerge out of the context or dialogue between the researcher and the participant who is regarded as co-researcher in the embodied dialogical encounter. Advantages and disadvantages of positivism and phenomenology. BERA 2009 Research SIG. It will then go on to introduce the philosophical foundations of phenomenology. Hermeneutic phenomenology therefore embraces the literary and poetic aesthetic application of language that emanates from the process and product of research [10]. 2:52. doi: 10.4172/2472-1654.100093. IPA is particularly attractive because of its commitment to explore, describe, interpret, and situate the participants’ sense making of their experiences [1,12]. Firstly, IPA like many phenomenological studies gives unsatisfactory recognition to the integral role of language [7]. The notion is that there is a phenomenon out there ready to be explored but requiring the detective work of the researcher to bring it to light using his/her prior experience, assumptions or preconceptions to make sense of the experience once it is revealed [1]. Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA); Phenomenology; Qualitative research. In view of all that has been discussed so far, one may understand that IPA is indeed a forward-looking research methodology that has the potential in understanding and interpreting the experiences of people [17,18], because it offers practical and accessible guidelines in conducting phenomenological research [1,19,20]. Its emphasis on convergence and divergence of experiences, as well as its mission in examining detailed and nuanced analysis of the lived experience of small number participants [1], is particularly appealing to many researchers. Conducting qualitative longitudinal research using interpretative phenomenological analysis. The general focus of the descriptive phenomenological approach is to examine the essence or structure of experiences in the way it occurs to our conscious. Nurse Res. A … theories of Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) and socio-ecological theory were used to discuss the findings of the study. However, it is sensible for readers hoping to use IPA for future projects to note this criticism and take extra attentiveness to collect rich and exhaustive data from participants. Critical appraisal of rigour in interpretive phenomenological nursing research. greater critical understanding of the assumptions at play in a person‟s lived experience. Hence, for both Ricoeur and hermeneutics experience and language is co-emergent. This paper will hopefully equip researchers when deciding on the appropriate research methodology to their research topic. Narrative analysis is a first-person account by respondents of their experience in relation to a nominated subject. Qualitative research methodologies focus on meaning and although use similar methods have differing epistemological and ontological underpinnings, with each approach offering a different lens to explore, interpret or explain phenomena in real-world contexts and settings. Thus, research findings are suffused with philosophical, theoretical, literary and interpretative lenses resulting to an aspect of human experience grounded on unrestricted imagination and metaphorical sensibility. This approach strives to find the intentional relationship between the conscious, social, perceptual, and practical experiences by analyzing time, space, and the taken-for granted presentation of experience. This paper has provided a valuable contribution to our understanding of IPA, future researchers who are motivated in providing interesting and detailed insights into the subjective lived experiences of people [1] might consider IPA as their preferred research methodology. However, it has methodological limitations and need to be considered.  |  To conclude, the process of thematic analysis, based in a descriptive phenomenological approach, goes from the original data to the identification of meanings, organizing these into patterns and writing the results of themes related to the study aim and the actual context. Qualitative inquiries seek to shed light on meanings that are less perceptible. 'Like a human being, I was an equal, I wasn't just a patient': Service users' perspectives on their experiences of relationships with staff in mental health services. Epub 2019 Jan 24. Todd, D., Simpson, J. Mjøsund NH, Eriksson M, Espnes GA, Haaland-Øverby M, Jensen SL, Norheim I, Kjus SH, Portaasen IL, Vinje HF. Presentation to the School of Nursing and Midwifery, University of Sheffield. Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) has become a dominant qualitative research methodology in many academic disciplines. Aim: While it is acknowledged that different phenomenologists place different emphasis on the role of sensation and physiology in relation to intellectual or rationale domain, the place of the body as essential element in experience cannot be overlooked [1]. Furthermore, Heidegger illuminates that our being in the world presents us with fundamental interpretative situation that compels us to ask questions about our world [10]. The approach is inspired by the ideals of Husserl who believes that access to the world is through consciousness as experienced from the first-person perspective. This approach is based on the philosophy of Husserl’s phenomenology which involves the principles of epoché, intentional analysis and eidetic reduction. This study provides insights into this growing area of qualitative research approach. & Osborn, M. (2007). Thus, Heidegger’s work invites IPA researchers to ground their stance in the lived world of things, people, relationships and language, and question knowledge outside interpretation because interpretation of people’s meaning-making of their experience is fundamental to phenomenological inquiry. IPA is phenomenological in that it wishes to explore an individual’s personal perception or account of an event or state as opposed to attempting to produce an objective record of the event or state itself. Moreover, the interpretive nature of the approach enables the researcher to derive insights from the respondents by employing curiosity, open-mindedness, empathy, and flexibility to listen to people narrating their stories in their own natural settings to identify how their experiences and behaviours are shaped by the context of their social, cultural, economic and historical worlds [2]. Get the latest public health information from CDC:, Get the latest research information from NIH:, Find NCBI SARS-CoV-2 literature, sequence, and clinical content: Smith, J.A. Department of Midwifery and Healthcare, College of Nursing, University of West London, UK, Received Date: July 05, 2017; Accepted Date: July 21, 2017; Published Date: July 29, 2017, Citation: Tuffour I (2017) A Critical Overview of Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis: A Contemporary Qualitative Research Approach. What’s more, qualitative research is designed to study people’s life experiences and deliberately shuns quantitative preoccupation with measuring, counting and prediction in favour of describing, exploring, understanding and interpreting how a phenomenon [2]. An IPA researcher is also said to engage in ‘double hermeneutic’, in that the researcher is making sense of the participants’ sense making. IPA has two primary aims: to look in detail at how someone makes sense of life experience, and to give detailed interpretation of the account to understand the experience [1]. Objective: This paper is aimed at providing an overview and limitations of IPA. Secondly, questions have been raised whether IPA can accurately capture the experiences and meanings of experiences rather than opinions of it. It takes great care of each case, offering detailed and nuanced analysis, valuing each case in its own merits before moving to the general cross-case analysis for convergence and divergence between cases [1]. Phenomenology has evolved into a relatively mature qualitative research methodology during the last decades of the twentieth century largely due to a seismic shift from mainly deductive quantitative research to inductive research. National Center for Biotechnology Information, Unable to load your collection due to an error, Unable to load your delegates due to an error. Your blog sums up the steps in Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis really well. Interpretative phenomenological analysis is discussed and critiqued in relation to other phenomenological approaches; benefits, potential limitations and rigour of studies using the method are explored. Data sources: Lifeworld is a descriptive and/or hermeneutic research approach used to explore how everyday experience shows itself in the lifeworld of individuals. These approaches can be drawn from any of the major philosophers of phenomenology work, but the works of Gadamer, Gendlin, Levinas and Buber are particularly appreciated because of their dialogical and empirical spirits [2]. In the first-person approach, researchers use their own subjective experiences and descriptive or hermeneutic approaches to examine the quality and essences of a phenomenon. It is only by understanding meanings that nurses can influence health behaviour and lifestyles. COVID-19 is an emerging, rapidly evolving situation. interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) music education qualitative research: Summary Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) has developed internationally into a growing qualitative approach to research in the areas of psychology, health sciences, social sciences, education and also specifically in music education. Psychology and Health, 22, 517–534. Moreover, phenomenological research is suitable with the most eloquent individuals [7]. Implications for research and practice: Solution dfdaxy dfdayx. Data is analyzed inductively to understand the meanings the participants assign to their experiences. Review methods: IPA is part of a family of phenomenological psychology approaches, all of which differ to some degree in their theoretical emphases and methodological commitments but are in broad Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) is a distinctive approach to conducting qualitative research being used with increasing frequency in published studies. Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) This particular research method assesses how respondents in the course of an interview make sense of questions and comments raised in relation to events and actions in their lives. Ljungvall H, Rhodin A, Wagner S, Zetterberg H, Åsenlöf P. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. Then followed by the theoretical underpinnings and criticisms of IPA. Or to examine what Heidegger terms as throw-ness. The desire to understand the theoretical underpinnings of this research approach is evident. 2014 Jan;21(3):8-12. doi: 10.7748/nr2014. This is important as it is believed to be the most scientific qualitative approach. The advantage of using the IPA design is that it has phenomenological, an interpretative, a double hermeneutic, and an idiographic nature. The goal of this process is to discover high-level themes that have both meaningful and practical implications. Errasti-Ibarrondo B, Jordán JA, Díez-Del-Corral MP, Arantzamendi M. J Adv Nurs. Advantages and Disadvantages of Interpretivism Main disadvantages associated with interpretivism relate to subjective nature of this approach and great room for bias on behalf of researcher. Thus, meaning in his view is indispensable to experience. Thus, one important theoretical touchstone for IPA is phenomenology, which originated with Husserl's attempts to … In relation to IPA, the ‘part’ corresponds to the encounter with the participant in a research project, and the ‘whole’ the drawing of knowledge and experience of the researcher [1]. iMedPub LTD Last revised : December 20, 2020, Select your language of interest to view the total content in your interested language, Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. & Murray, C. (2010). But the criticism could be seen as elitist, suggesting only those having access to the right level of fluency are allowed to describe their experiences.  |  Therefore, given that the basis of IPA is the examination of the thing itself; thoughtful focus and the careful examination of experience in the way it occurs to the participants proposed by Husserl is essential [1,2]. Given a scenario or a rocket launch system. One of the striking features of IPA is a detailed and systematic analysis of consciousness. content analysis covering a spectrum of approaches ranging from empirical phenomenological psychology to hermeneutical-phenomenological psychology, depending on the data source (Holloway & Wheeler 1996:2-3; Van der Wal 1999:55). The psychosocial and service delivery impact of genomic testing for inherited retinal dystrophies. Anyone can earn It’s not so much about bean-counting and much more about capturing people’s opinions and emotions. While there are a number of uses with phenomenological research, you can’t say there aren’t some notable downsides: 1. Nurses lived experience of Discussions about Sexual health, with kidney patients Devon. Inductively to understand the data without the influence of any external theory psychological impact genomic... 1,2 ] are individually neces sary conditions for the compound object context: interpretative phenomenological analysis ( IPA ) phenomenological! 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