It is a medium sized tree with mature trees reaching heights of 10-16 m (30-52 ft) and developing a trunk 15-30 cm (6-12 in) in diameter. Both trees are commonly called ironwood . Here’s what the fruit looks like: A closely related tree, the blue beech (Carpinus caroliniana), also carries the hornbeam and ironwood names. Color/Appearance: Hornbeam’s sapwood is very thick, with most boards and lumber being comprised entirely of sapwood. It is the upland equivalent to hornbeam (Carpinus caroliniana). Introduction: American hophornbeam is a small understory tree of well-drained, deciduous forests that thrives on neglect. On adult and mature trees, the bark is grayish-brown colored and is broken into short, thin, vertical strips that are free at both closures. Birds provide a secondary means of seed dispersal after wind. Reference: https://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/volume_2/ostrya/virginiana.htm. The fruits of the Eastern Ironwood are small, flattened nuts, which are clustered inside egg-shaped papery sacs that resemble hops (indeed, another common name for the tree is the hop-hornbeam). The American hornbeam (Carpinus caroliniana) is a deciduous hardwood shade tree that's native to eastern North America.It is part of the Betulaceae (birch) family and has several nicknames, including blue beech, muscle beech, water beech, muscletree, musclewood, and ironwood. Each tree has at some time been called by the common name of the other. Leaves and Buds It is indeed a very hard, heavy and stiff wood. The bark of hop hornbeam is thin, reddish gray, with tight, narrow, platelike scales; some trees have loose, shreddy scales. Its wood is very hard and is sometimes used to make tool handles. So named because the fruit bears a resemblance to the fruit on hop vines, hence “hop-hornbeam.” Sometimes referred to as “Ironwood,” though it is one of the few hardwoods bearing this name that do not actually sink in water. Name – Ostrya carpinifolia Family – Betulaceae Type – tree Height – 32 to 65 feet (10 to 20 meters) Exposure – full sun Soil – ordinary Foliage – deciduous Flowering – April-May. Lilac Wood The wood of the lilac bush is very hard and strong. The tree has light brown heartwood and thick, white sapwood. In modern times, Easter Ironwoods are used for making fence posts and for decoration, often as street trees. A small, slow-growing tree, found in pockets along rivers in eastern North Dakota. The wood of this tree is strong and hard. American hophornbeam was introduced into the landscape in 1690. The bark of mature Ostrya trees tends to split into narrow vertical strips and becomes somewhat flaky and the appearance is very distinctive. Male inflorescences are dense, drooping, 2-5 cm long catkins in groups of 2 or 3 at the ends of the twigs. Maybe it is one more of the reasons for rare hornbeam bows. It is found throughout the state of Ohio. It is found throughout the state of Ohio. The buds and nuts are eaten by a wide variety of … The European hop-hornbeam (Ostrya carpinifolia) and the Japanese hop-hornbeam (O. japonica) may reach 21 m (70 feet); the other species are much smaller. Its wood is very hard and is sometimes used to make tool handles. The American hop hornbeam tree has very hard and dense wood. They make lovely shade trees and their seedpods are of horticultural interest, but some foresters consider the tree a “weed tree.” Issues: Hop horbeam does not have any major pests associated with it. The individual fruits are 5-8 mm long, while the fruit clusters are 2 cm long. To foresters, they’re considered a “weed tree” that outcompetes more profitable tree species. Solitary pistillate inflorescences first appear with the beginning of leaf development, and full bloom occurs about a month later. It is naturally found in dry, rocky forests. Privacy policy. Hornbeam timber is a pale, creamy white with a flecked grain. Easter Ironwood is usually found in upland wooded areas. The leaves of Ostrya virginiana are simple, alternate and doubly-toothed. This tree has three trunks that diverge at 17.5 cm, probably as a result of coppicing (the periodic cutting back of a tree or shrub to ground level in order to stimulate growth. In the Old World, a hornbeam was … Blue beech is another name for American Hornbeam, also called ironwood and musclewood. Tree; Above ground, woody, perennial; Can grow to be 50 ft tall, more commonly stays between 30 ft- 40 ft; The estimated DBH is 0.1414 m based on calculations given by Hari. Eastern hophornbeam (Ostrya virginiana) is aka ironwood. Ironwood is considered one of Illinois' toughest native hardwoods and is not only ornamental but resistant to many disease and insect problems. The Primitave Archer website says it’s #2 with osage-orange being #1. The tree has 3 trunks, arising from the main trunk at 17.5 cm, probably after coppicing. Hop Hornbeam Wood Hop hornbeam, locally called ironwood, is a small tree, hard and tough. Despite their hard wood, hop hornbeams are rarely used as timber trees. Logs will last a long time but they are difficult to split. The fruits on the tree are contained inside hop-like capsules similar in color and appearance to the hop plant which gives this tree its unique name. Biota of North America Program (BONAP). . Trees begin to be fruitful at age 25. The tree has fruit that resembles hops and the wood has been used to make tool handles and yoke beams for oxen, hence the name hop hornbeam.I obtained a burl of hop hornbeam from the UP of Michigan. Hornbeam Tree Info. N-318 Ag Sciences Center University of Kentucky Lexington, KY 40546-0091, Fax (Lexington): 859-257-2859       (Princeton): 270-365-2667, For questions about home gardening, landscaping or commercial horticulture production, please contact your county extension agent. Send mail to cgcass0@uky.edu with questions about this site. This wood is excellent for making bows, furniture, or anything else that you want to last forever. Joined: Feb 16, 2018 Messages: 1 Likes Received: 15 Location: TN. The combination of trunk and bark should separate this tree from the American Hornbeam, with which it has shared an unusual history of confusion in common names. Although American hophornbeam's fall color is not sensational, it helps to "soften" the autumn landscape. The crown is broad and rounded or cone-shaped. In picture 1426, I'm getting set to split the rounds I moved out of our shoulder season stacking area (picture 1429) the rest of the pictures are from moving the rounds and the splitting I … The fruit is a nutlet that resembles a hop like fruit from hop vine. Page 1 of 2 1 2 Next > Wrad. The trunk is erect, often crooked, and distinct almost to the top of the tree. Depending on where you live Blue Beech, American Hophornbeam, Eastern Hophornbeam and even Musclewood (due to its twisted trunk and resemblance to a muscle) are names given to describe "Ironwood" which makes identifying the tree somewhat confusing. It is frequently called iron wood but that name is shared by other species. References: http://minnesotaseasons.com/Plants/ironwood.html, The branches of the Eastern Ironwood are long, slender, and spreading, while the twigs are slender, reddish brown, hairy, and they zigzag outward from the tree. These native American shade trees grow from Canada to Florida (zone 3 -9) as a very cold hardy tree and are also called: Eastern Ironwood trees, because hophornbeam has such a dense, strong wood that is excellent to use in tool handles and fence posts. Male and female flowers are in separate clusters on the same tree, which means that the plant is monoecious with imperfect flowers. A lovely shade tree suitable for most settings, American hornbeams are compact trees that fit the scale of the average home landscape perfectly. Building A Firewood Shed Generally speaking an average tree would be about 4" - 6" in diameter and a very large tree would be around 8" - 10" in diameter and they grow to a maximum height of 40 feet. Blue beech’s official name is American hornbeam without the “hop.” The hornbeam tree info in this article will help you decide whether the tree is right for you, and tell you how to care for it. The tree also earned the name ironwood from its tough, hard wood… WARNING: Some websites to which these materials provide links for the convenience of users are not managed by the University of Kentucky. The nuts are enclosed in inflated sacs that provides buoyancy and improved dispersal by the wind. On mature trees, the bark of the trunk is rough-textured and greyish brown, dividing into narrow rectangular strips; this provides the trunk with a slightly shaggy appearance. The Eastern Ironwood has simple, deciduous leaves that are elliptical with a heart-shaped taper at the tip, 5-12 cm long, and 2-5 cm wide. Sometimes (especially formerly) called Leverwood, from the hardness and strength of the wood. Not sure about that exact species but I have worked with quite a bit of Eastern Hop Hornbeam (Ostrya virginiana) here in Minnesota and they look to be closely related. Seeds are light, about 66,000 cleaned seeds per kg. White bracelet, Hornbeam Wood, Light Bracelet, Wooden Bracelet, Handmade Bracelet, Boho Style, Woodpecker, Gift for Her, Gift for Girl BirchBarkBarrette. The bark is thin, soft, grayish brown, and broken into narrow longitudinal strips that hang loosely on the tree. Reply; Nina Jillaine February 23, 2018, 4:40 am. This small, short-lived tree is common in the understorey of rich, moist woods. Hornbeam's bark is so tight and if you try to steam it to easier debark immediatly after that- wood cracks alot. Each tree has at some time been called by the common name of the other. It is found across the whole of the UK, and we have a few stools of it in our own coppice woodland.It is slower growing than the chestnut and, as the name "Ironwood" suggests, is nearly impossible to work with hand tools. Site design : Academic Web Pages. Ironwood is a synonym of hornbeam. For all sites pooled, Tsuga wood pieces comprised 35% of the wood surface area in Tsuga‐dominated stands, Betula 18%, and Acer 29%, with 18% of area made up of minor species, vs. 27%, 18%, 48% and 8%, respectively, in Acer‐dominated The top side are yellow-green and hairless, and the bottom side is the same color but soft and hairy to the touch. In this area the wood is referred to as “Ironwood” and it is hard and heavy. I learned that there are literally dozens of tree species that can be tapped for syrup besides maples, and this year we decided to give it a shot.Our land is covered in far more ironwood trees than maples, and so we had plenty of choices. The "hornbeam" part of the common name, hop hornbeam, also comes from its strength-under-pressure qualities. Saw that you mentioned hop hornbeam wouldn’t make a good archery bow. The university does not review, control or take responsibility for the contents of those sites. The bark is brown to gray-brown, with narrow shaggy plates flaking off, while younger twigs and branches are smoother and gray, with small lenticels. This site was last updated on December 18, 2020. Hornbeams, also known as ironwood and musclewood, get their common names from their strong wood, which rarely cracks or splits. Plant growth form. Eastern Hop Hornbeam is also called ironwood. Ostrya virginiana, commonly called American hop hornbeam, is a deciduous, Missouri native tree which usually occurs in dry soils on rocky slopes, upland woods and bluffs throughout the State.A small to medium-sized, understory tree with a generally rounded crown. Color is nearly white. Typically grows 25-40' tall with a slightly smaller spread. Hornbeams are hardwood trees in the flowering plant genus Carpinus in the birch family Betulaceae. A hard nut is inside each pod. Ostrya virginiana, or Hop Hornbeam, is a small and slender deciduous tree with a generally rounded top that may grow 20 to 35 feet tall and 7 to 10 inches in diameter, although some specimens can reach 50 feet with a trunk diameter of 2 feet. Hop hornbeam is a scrub understory tree native to the Eastern United States. In the fall, the leaves change color to a dark yellow and often stay on the tree until winter. The fruits of the Eastern Ironwood are small, flattened nuts, which are clustered inside egg-shaped papery sacs that resemble hops (indeed, another common name for the tree is the hop-hornbeam). It makes good tool handles and if I get hold of some I use it for wooden spoons, but it is not very plentiful. Photo courtesy of Karren Wcisel (http://www.treetopics.com/ostrya_virginiana/index.htm). It is difficult to reestablish after transplanting. The fruit looks somewhat like the fruit of Hops (Humulus lupulus), hence the common name \"hop-hornbeam\". It is a medium sized tree with mature trees reaching heights of 10-16 m (30-52 ft) and developing a trunk 15-30 cm (6-12 in) in diameter. References: http://minnesotaseasons.com/Plants/ironwood.html. The wood of this tree is strong and hard. Pollen forms, matures, and sheds in spring through wind dissemination. Once again, with practice the color is distinctive. Leaves resemble elm but this tree is a member of the Birch family. Top Hophornbeam facts. In the southeast, flowering occurs in the first two weeks of April, and in the north, between mid-May and mid-June (so unfortunately, we were not able to capture it in person). The mature growth of this tree is around 25' tall x 25' wide. “Hop” refers to the tree’s fruit which resembles hops (think beer). Hop hornbeam, Ostrya virginiana, has light brown shreddy bark and gets the hop hornbeam name from the cluster of overlapping seed pods which resemble a cone of fruits on a hop vine. The Eastern Ironwood, known also as the American Hophornbeam, Eastern Hop-hornbeam, Hophornbeam, Ironwood, or Leverwood, stretches over much of the Eastern United States with its attractive foliage and bell-like inflorescences. Also hop hornbeam is easier to debark than hornebam because it's smoother under bark. It is used for fence posts, fuel, and tool handles. They are very slow growing, but once re-established, will make excellent growth. The tree has light brown heartwood and thick, white sapwood. American hornbeam, Carpinus caroliniana has smooth grey bark which is often rippled like muscle, causing it to be called muscle-wood in some areas. Lilac Wood The wood of the lilac bush is very hard and strong. Nowadays, it’s mainly used for furniture, flooring and wood turning, but traditionally the wood was made into ox yokes which were used to join a … Pale yellowish brown heartwood isn’t clearly demarcated from sapwood. Its hardness is prized for tool handles or walking canes. Ironwood firewood is commonly used as a blanket term for several different types of dense firewood producing trees. Female inflorescences are in loose, elongated clusters at the ends of new shoots, with the eventual fruits contained inside papery sacs. Nearly 18 million acres or essentially 50 percent of the land area of the state are occupied by forest vegetation. Maybe it is one more of the reasons for rare hornbeam bows. The bark and inner wood was used to treat toothache, sore muscles, coughs, and many other ailments by American Indians. The largest tree in North Dakota is 33 feet tall with a canopy spread of 34 feet. It's an excellent tree for lawns, street trees, or parks. An Equal Opportunity University. The leaves of Ostrya virginiana are simple, alternate and doubly-toothed. The American hop hornbeam is often confused with the American hornbeam. Hop-Hornbeam is native to Michigan. The strips can be seen to spiral around the trunk. It is co… This tree can be found in all counties of Illinois and much of the Eastern United States (see Distribution Map), where it is native and fairly common. Hickory - Hop Hornbeam Forests/ Woodlands are open communiies dominated by various hickory species with signiicant hop hornbeam in the subcanopy; This community is characterized by a sparse shrub layer, and a nearly coninuous cover of grasses and sedges; The American hop hornbeam tree has very hard and dense wood. The foliage resembles that of yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis), but, as in Carpinus, the leaves are always single, not in pairs, while in B. alleghaniensis the leaves on very short lateral shoots (not new branchlets) are generally paired. I have some on my own place, but very few trees, so I hate to cut those. Maybe that's why technical info is hard to come by. The trees are rather small with a 10” trunk being good sized, so lumber is smaller pieces. This hard dense wood also makes high quality charcoal. American hornbeam, Carpinus caroliniana has smooth grey bark which is often rippled like muscle, causing it to be called muscle-wood in some areas. Ironwood is a tough understory tree with beautiful birch-like leaves, grayish-brown flaky bark, fine-textured drooping branches, and attractive hop-like fruits. The fruits develop during the summer and are ripe by the end of August in the midwest and as late as October in the south. Wood makes great firewood with high energy value. The trunk is up to 2' across. They are not often distinguished in technical documents and often erroneously interchanged. Reply; Nina Jillaine February 23, 2018, 4:40 am. Other Resources: USDA Be sure to come in the summer to admire its attractive yellow-green color and festive white flowers. The Eastern hop hornbeam gets its scientific name Ostrya from a Greek word meaning “bone” since the wood of this tree is very hard and heavy. The combination of trunk and bark should separate this tree from the American Hornbeam, with which it has shared an unusual history of confusion in common names. The bark is thin, soft, grayish brown, and broken into narrow longitudinal strips that hang loosely on the tree. Photo: N. Putnam, DCR. Hop hornbeam gets its name from its fruits, which are enclosed in scales that loosely resemble the hops used in making beer (Humulus lupulus). Though they can grow to 2.5 feet in diameter and as much as 50 feet tall, hornbeam seldom reach more than 30 feet, and it’s rare to find a tree over a foot in diameter. From shop BirchBarkBarrette. Young American hophornbeam trees look a great deal like sweet birch (Betula lenta). It is one of several tree species called ironwood because their wood is so hard. References: http://minnesotaseasons.com/Plants/ironwood.html. Location of Ostrya virginiana (Ironwood) at the Arboretum 2013. that shall live this day, and see old age. This wood is excellent for making bows, furniture, or anything else that you want to last forever. For general undergraduate student information, contact Dr. Rick Durham at (859) 257-3249, or rdurham@uky.edu. Description American hophornbeam is a small deciduous understory tree growing to 18 m (59 ft) tall and 20–50 centimetres (8–20 in) trunk diameter. The Eastern Ironwood, known also as the American Hophornbeam, Eastern Hop-hornbeam, Hophornbeam, Ironwood, or Leverwood, stretches over much of the Eastern United States with its attractive foliage and bell-like inflorescences. Color is nearly white. Saw that you mentioned hop hornbeam wouldn’t make a good archery bow. The American hop hornbeam is often confused with the American hornbeam. The reference to muscle relates to the tree's characteristic fluted trunk and branches that look like muscle tissue. Fruit change from green to tan when they mature. The largest tree in North Dakota is 33 feet tall with a canopy spread of 34 feet. Leaves resemble elm but this tree is a member of the Birch family. Wood pieces covered 6.2% of the forest floor at Porcupine and 4.4% at both Sylvania and Huron. European hophornbeam is a beautiful ornamental tree that can reach quite an impressive size when fully mature. It is extremely hard; in fact it has the hardest wood of any tree in Europe. Hop hornbeam? Hardiness zone 4. It is smaller than many other trees and usually does not reach the canopy. There are too many multiple trunks to accurately measure the DBH, so this is just an estimate, The bark on youthful trees is smooth, hard, chestnut brown colored, rapidly getting to be gray and rough (as seen in the picture). This year was a year of tree tapping experimentation. Also known as American Hop-hornbeam. It is indeed a very hard, heavy and stiff wood. Be sure to come in the summer to admire its attractive yellow-green color and festive white flowers. In the wild, this tree provides shade for wildflowers and mosses. HOP HORNBEAM (Ostrya virginiana) Medicine: Chippewa used the wood at the heart of the branch in making a cough syrup, and in a medicine for kidney disorders. American hornbeam (Carpinus caroliniana) is aka blue beach, muscle wood and ironwood. Hop hornbeam, Ostrya virginiana, has light brown shreddy bark and gets the hop hornbeam name from the cluster of overlapping seed pods which resemble a cone of fruits on a hop vine. American hophornbeam should be transplanted balled- and-burlapped or from a container in early spring. The hop-hornbeam in the Outdoor Learning Lab contributes to the overall beauty in the landscape but it also provides food and shelter for many different species of animals. It can also be grown in containers or root-control bags. The tree's tap root can be cut in the nursery to give it a root structure to better fit a specific location. Blue-beech or Hornbeam (Carpinus caroliniana) is similar to Hop-hornbeam … The name Ironwood refers to the great strength of the wood which was highly prized for tool handles etc. Hop hornbeam wood is very heavy and dense, hence a common name ironwood, but the trees are otherwise not used for timber. Excellent tree for naturalized landscapes. “Horn beam” means hard wood. It is frequently called iron wood but that name is shared by other species. Fruit are drooping clusters at the tip of branches that look like hops, hence the common name hop hornbeam Each small inflated sac has a hard nutlet inside; fruit changes from green cream to tan. Hop Hornbeam Wood Hop hornbeam, locally called ironwood, is a small tree, hard and tough. Its wood is very durable and used for making a variety of modern tools. Musclewood comes from the muscular look of the trunk. 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